Published on August 31, 2020

Solar System


The solar system consists of eight planets and their satellites and other materials such as comments, asteroid, meteors are revolving around the stat Sun. In another word gravitational force of the sun makes these objects revolving around it. The solar system is the part of the Milkyway galaxy.

solar system

The Sun

  • Sun is consists of two major gases Hydrogen(71%) and Helium(26.5%).
  • The radius of the Sun is 7 lakh kilometres.
  • Sun produces its energy by the nuclear fusion reaction. It produces approximate 15,000,000° Celcius temperature.
  • The surface temperature of the sun is estimated as 6000 °C.
  • Corona is the outer layer of the suns atmosphere that is only visible during a total solar eclipse.
  • It takes 8.5 minutes to reach the sunlight from Sun to Earth.

The planets of Solar System

solar system
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

The first four planets Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are called terrestrial planets. And the last four planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune is called gaseous or Jovian planets.


Classification of Planets

Inner Planet Outer planet
Name Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
Consists of Dense metallic minarals mainly Iron and Magnesium. Hot gases mainly Hydrogen and Helium.
Revolution speed Faster. Slower.
Ring system Absent . Present.
Number of natural satellite Few. Many.

Inner Planets

1. Mercury

  • It is the closest planet to the Sun.
  • It is the smallest planet of the solar system.
  • It has no moon.
  • It takes 88 days to make one revolution of the sun.
  • The rotation of the planet is anticlockwise.
  • Mercury has no water or Ozone layer.

2. Venus

  • Venus if the second nearest planet from the sun.
  • It is the hottest and brightest planet of the solar system.
  • It is called “Evening Star”, “Morning Star”, Veiled planet”.
  • Due to similarities to the Earth, it is also called as “Earth’s twin”.
  • It has a thick cloud layer in the atmosphere.
  • The rotation of the planet is clockwise.

3. Earth

  • It is the largest of the inner planets.
  • The diameter of the planet is 12,757.
  • It is called the “blue planet” or the “watery planet”.
  • It takes 23 hours 56 minutes and 48 seconds to rotate around its own axis anticlockwise and 365 days, 5 hours and 48 minutes to revolve around the Sun.
  • The water cycle is present on Earth.
  • Venus’s orbit closest to the earth.
  • Solar energy is received by the earth through radiation.
  • Earth is the only planet which supports life.
  • The only one satellite of Earth is Moon.
    • Moon:
      • The Moon is the only satellite of the Earth.
      • It is also known as "fossil planet"
      • The diameter of the Moon is 3,475 km.
      • The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 38,400 km.
      • The maximum distance of the Moon from the Earth is 4,06,000 km. It is called apogee.
      • The minimum distance of the Moon from the Earth is 4,06,000 km. It is called perigee.
      • The highest point on the Moon is Mt. Leibnitz (35,00ft) located in the South Pole of the Moon.
      • Moon is one-forth of the size of the Earth.
      • The gravity of the Moon is one-sixth that of the Earth.

4. Mars

  • It is the fourth planet of the solar system.
  • It is also called as “Red planet”.
  • India is the first Asian country to Orbit Mars.
  • It has two satellites – Phoebes and Demos.
  • The rotation of the planet is anticlockwise.

Outer Planet

5. Jupiter

  • Jupiter is the largest planet of the Solar System.
  • The rotation of the planet is anticlockwise.
  • It is also known as “winter planet”. The average temperature of the planet is -148° celsius.
  • The mass of Jupiter is approximately one-thousandth of the solar mass.
  • It has 67 natural satellites among them Ganymede is the largest satellite of the solar system.

6. Saturn

  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.
  • It is the second-largest planet of the Solar system.
  • It has the visible bight ring around it made up of ice-coated dust particles.
  • It has 62 satellites among them Titan is the largest satellite.
  • The rotation of the planet is anticlockwise.

7. Uranus

  • Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
  • It is the first discovered planet by using a telescope in 1781 by Sir William Herschel.
  • The planet emitting green light due to the presence of Methane gas in the atmosphere.
  • Uranus has 27 satellites.
  • The diameter of Uranus is 51,118 kilometres.
  • There are 13 rings around the planet.
  • The rotation of the planet is clockwise i.e east to west.

8. Neptune

  • Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun.
  • It is similar to the planet Uranus.
  • It is surrounded by Methane rings.

Dwarf Planet

Pluto

  • On 24th August 2006, Pluto descended from its 9th planet status to a dwarf planet status by IAU (International Astronomical Union).
  • Now it is assigned as a number 134340 by MPC (Minor Planet Centre.
  • The largest satellite of Pluto is Chron.

Astroid or Planetoids

  • It is also known as minor planets generally present in between Mars and Jupiter as ‘asteroid belt’.
  • The asteroid rotates on its own axis in 5 to 20 hours.
  • The astroids found near the orbit of the Jupiter are Trojan asteroids.

Meteors and Meteorites

  • These are also known as shooting stars.
  • Meteors are generally burned up complete in contact with the earth’s atmosphere. If any large meteor does not burn up completely and fall into the ground of the Earth, it is called a meteorite.
  • It is assumed to be originated from the asteroid belt.

Comets

  • Comments are the visitors of the solar system made up of frozen gases which hold together rocky and metallic materials.
  • For example, Halley’s Comet is visible from the earth in every 75–76 years.
  • It has a bright tail made up of dust particles.
  • The comets are generally visible when it passes closer to the sun.

Interesting Points

  • The Earth is saved from most of the meteors because of Jupiter. It acts as a guard for the Earth.
  • The name of our closest galaxy is Andromeda Galaxy.
  • The closest star to the sun is Proxima Centauri ( 4.2 light-years away).
  • A nebula is a bright interstellar cloud of Hydrogen and Helium gases and dust particles.
  • Rather than Pluto, the other dwarf planets are Ceres, Makemake, Haumea, Eris, HYPOTHETICAL, Planet X.

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