Published on August 31, 2020

Making of Indian Constitution From Scratch


India got freedom on 15 to August 1947. As a free nation, India needed to have its constitution. Although the constitution assembly was already set up on 6th December 1946. And the Indian constitution came into force on 26th January 1950 So 26th January is celebrated as Republic Day of India.

Jawaharlal Nehru_addressing the constituent assembly
CC: Wikipedia

Making of Indian Constitution

Political activist M. N. Roy first proposed the idea of the constituent assembly in 1934. After one year in 1935, Indian National Congress demanded a separate constitution for Indian people. The nationalist demand for the Constituent Assembly by Indian national Congres was for the first time conceded by the Britsh Government in August Offer, 1940.

The Indian Constitution Assembly was constituted in 1946 through indirect election by provincial legislatures under the provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946 with Lord Pethick Lawrence as chairman and two more members Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander. The election was based on a communal basis by a single transferrable vote system.

Initially, the Constituent Assembly consisted of 389 members among them 292 members were from the Governor’s Province, 93 members were from the Princely States and 4 members were from Chief Commissioners Provinces. After the Muslim League boycott the first meeting on December 9, 1946, the number of members left in the Constituent Assembly was 299.

A_Constituent_Assembly_of_India_meeting_in_1950.webp
CC: Wikipedia
Formation date 6 December 1946
Total No. of Sessions 11
first Session date 9th December 1946
First Temporary or Acting president of CA Sachchidananda Sinha
First elected president of CA Dr Rajendra Prasad
First elected vice president Harendra Coomar Mookerjee
Constitutional Adviser B. N. Rao
Women Member Sarojini Naidu and Vijaya Laxmi Pandit
Persi Member H. P. Modi
Anglo Indian Member Frank Anthony
Total Number of members 389
Most important committee Drafting committee
First reading from 4th to 9th November 1948 at Delhi
Second reading 15th November 1948 to 17th October 1949
Third & final reading 14th November 1949 and passed on 26th November 1929
Came into force 26th January 1950
Adopted national flag 22 July 1947
Adopted National Anthem 24 January 1950

Jawaharal Nehru and other members taking pledge
CC: Wikipedia

Functions Performed by Constituent Assembly

1.  It ratified India’s membership of the Commonwealth in May 1949.
2.  It adopted the national flag on July 22, 1947.
3.  It adopted the national anthem Jana Gana Mana on January 24, 1950.
4.  It adopted the national song Vande Matram on January 24, 1950.
5.  It elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as the first President of India on January 24, 1950.

Jawaharlal Nehru signing Indian Constitution
CC: Wikipedia
Designed by Pingali Venkayya
The ratio between length and breath 3:2
Colour combination Saffron, white and green in descending order and a blue Ashoka Chakra in the middle.
No. of spokes in the Ashoka Chakra 24
Adopted by Congress in 1931 at Karachi

Important Committees of Constituent Assembly

The total number of committees are 22 and each of them performed the different functions.

Dr._Babasaheb_Ambedkar_Chairman_Drafting_Committee_of_the_Indian_Constitution_with_other_members_on_Aug._29_1947.webp
CC: Wikipedia

List of Major Committees with Chairmen

  1. Drafting Committee – B. R. Ambedkar
  2. Union Power Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
  3. Union Constitution Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru
  4. Provincial Constitution Committee – Vallabhbhai Patel
  5. Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas – Vallabhbhai Patel. This committee had 5 subcommittees:
    1. Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee – J. B. Kripalani
    2. Minorities Sub-Committee – Harendra Coomar Mookerjee,
    3. North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee – Gopinath Bordoloi
    4. Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee – A V Thakkar
    5. North-West Frontier Tribal Areas Sub-Committee
  6. Rules of Procedure Committee – Rajendra Prasad
  7. States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States) – Jawaharlal Nehru
  8. Steering Committee – Rajendra Prasad
  9. National flag ad hoc committee – Rajendra Prasad
  10. Committee for the function of the constitution assembly – G V Mavlankar
  11. House committee – B Pattabhi Sitaramayya
  12. Language committee – Moturi Satyanarayana
  13. Order of business committee – K M Munshi

Drafting Committee

Drafting committee finished the Draft Constitution of India in February 1948 and the second reading of the same was completed in October 1948. For the third reading of the Constitution was adopted of the constitution, the Assembly met on November 14, 1949, and finished it on November 26, 1946. The constitution was adopted on the same date (26th November 1949) with the members and the president signing the Constitution. The Drafting Committee had 7 members.

  1. Dr BR Ambedkar [Chairman]
  2. N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
  3. Mohammed Saadullah
  4. Alladi Krishna swami Ayyar
  5. KM Munshi
  6. BL Mittar replaced by N Madhava Rao for his health conditions.
  7. Dr DP Khaitan (died in 1948 and was replaced by TT Krishnamachari)

Related Articles

Sources of Indian Constitution

What is Preamble to the Constitution of India

The History Behind Making Indian Constitution


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