Published on August 28, 2020

Later Mughal Age (1707-1858)


The Mughal rulers after Aurangzeb are called the later Mughals. The last powerful Mughal emperor was Aurangzeb. After him, the power and integrity of the Mughal emperor were gradually decreased.


Bahadur Shah I (1707-12)

  • The full name was Quib-ud-din Muhammad Muazzan. He was also known as Shah-i-Bekhabar or Headless king.
  • Burial – Dargah of Qutb-Ud-din-Bakhtiyar kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi.
  • In 1707, the Battle of Jajau he defeated prince Azam and captured the Mughal throne.
  • He assured the title Shah Alam I.
  • Maratha leader Shahu was released during his time. He gave the Maratha the right to collect Sardeshmukhi.
  • He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal.
bahadur_shah_i.jpg
Fig.1 -Bahadur Shah I (1707-12).


Jahandar Shah (1712- 13)

  • Full name – Muizzuddin-Muhammad Jahandar Shah.
  • Burial – Humayun’s Tomb at Delhi
  • Jahandar Shah occupied the throne with the help of Zulfiqar Khan, the powerful noble who as a reward was made the wazir (Prime Minister).
  • After Akbor he was the Mughal ruler who abolished Jijiya.
Jahandar_Shah-1.jpg
Fig.2 -Jahandar Shah (1712- 13).


Farrukh Syar (1713-19)

  • Full name – Muin-uddin Muhammad Farrukh Syar.
  • Burial – Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi
  • Prime Minister Abdullah Khan and commander-in-chief Sayyid Hussian Ali Khan controlled the king. They were as called Syed brothers.
  • Abdullah Khan and Sayyid Hussian Ali Khan are also called “The Kingmaker’.
  • The Sayyid brothers killed him with the help of Maratha Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath.
  • Sikh leader Banda was killed by Farrukh Syar’s order from 1715 to 1716.
  • In 1717 Murshid Kuli Khan was appointed as a “Subedar” of Bengal, later he became the independent leader of Bengal and transferred his capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad. Murshid Kuli Khan also started Izaradari land Revenue System.
  • Farrukh Syar was the first Mughal empire who was killed by his nobles.
Farrukh_Syar.jpg
Fig.3 -Farrukh Syar (1713-19).


Rafi-ud-Darajat

  • He was enthroned by Syed brothers in his young age.
  • He becomes the puppet of the Syed brothers.
Rafi_Uddar_Jat.jpg
Fig.4 -Rafi-ud-Darajat


Shah Jahan II

  • His birth name was Rafi ud-Daulah.
  • He was buried in the dargah of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
  • He was also chosen by Syed brothers.
 Shah_Jahan_II.jpg
Fig.5 -Shah Jahan II


Muhammad Shah (1719- 1748)

  • Full name – nasir-uddin Muhammad Roshan Akhtar.
  • Burial – Muhammad Shah’s Tomb at Delhi.
  • He was enthroned by the Syed brothers 1719.
  • His nickname was Rangeela.
  • In 1722 independent Awadh state was found by Sadat Khan and Bulhan-ul-Mulk.
  • In the battle of Karnal (1739) he was defeated by Nadir Shah who took away the Peacock Throne and Kohinoor diamond. The treaty of Shalimar was signed between Md. Shah and Nadir Shah in 1740.
  • Hyderabad state was found by Nazam-ul-Mulk.
  • In 1748 Afganisthan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali first invaded India( He invaded India 9 times).
  • Md Shah was proficient in Kathak dancing.
  • He encouraged “Urdu” literature in his court.
Muḥammad_Sháh.jpg
Fig.6 -Muhammad Shah (1719- 1748)


Ahmad Shah (1748 – 1754)

  • After the death of Md. Shah his son Ahmad Shah became the Mughal emperor.
 Ahmad_shah.jpg
Fig.7 -Ahmad Shah (1748 – 1754)


Alamgir II (1754 – 1759)

  • Real name was Muhammad Aziz-uddin-Alamgir.
  • Burial – Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi.
  • He was chosen to be the emperor by his wasir Ghaziuddin Imad-ul-Mulk( also know as Kingmaker).
  • Battle of Plassey was fought between British East India Company and Bengal’s Nabab Siraj-ud-Daulah during his reign.
 Alamgir
Fig.8 -Alamgir II (1754 – 1759)


Shah Alam II(1759- 1806)

  • Full name – Ham-uddin-Muhammad-Ali Gauhar.
  • He was also known as “Fugitive Mughal Emperor” or “Blind Mughal Emperor” or “Aftab”.
  • Burial – Dargah of Qutb-Ud-din-Bakhtiyar kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi.
  • He ruled for the longest time period among the later Mughal emperor.
  • During his reign, the Third Battle of Panipat (1761) was fought between Maratha and Ahmad Shah Abdali.
  • Treaty of Allahabad in 1765 granting the English East India Company the Dwani of Bengal.
  • The dual system of administration in Bengal started.
  • In 1772 – The great Bengal Famine.
  • Shah Alam was the last independent Mughal emperor.
  • Battle of Buxar (1764) was fought between English and Bengal Nawab Mir Qasim.
 Shah_Alam_II
Fig.9 -Shah Alam II(1759- 1806)


Akbar Shah II(1806 – 1837)

  • Full name – Muin-uddin-Muhammad-Akbar Shah.
  • Burial – Dargah of Qutb-Ud-din-Bakhtiyar kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi.
  • He sent Raja Rammohon Roy to England to seek a raise in pension.
  • Akbar Shah II gave Rammohan(first ambassador of India) the title ‘Raja’.
 Akbar_Shah_II
Fig10. -Akbar Shah II(1806 – 1837)


Bahadur Shah II ( 1837 – 1858)

  • Full name – Siraj-uddin-Muhammad Bahadur Shah.
  • He was also known as Zaffar Ali.
  • Burial – Rangoon, Burma.
  • He was the last Mughal king.
  • He took part in the Revolt of 1857 and he was proclaimed as emperor by the rebels.
  • He was deported to Reganoon after the revolt.
 Bahadur_Shah_II
Fig.11 -Bahadur Shah II ( 1837 – 1858)


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