Published on September 2, 2020

Human Development Index (HDI)



The Human Development Index is an index nation’s overall achievement in both social and economic dimensions based on the health of people, their level of educational attainment and their standard of living.

The concept of HDI was given by Amartya Sen and Lord Meghnad Desai. The first Human Development Index Report (HDR) was published in 1990 by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) under the leadership of Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq.

How to Measure?

Every year UNDP publishes HDI. Its value lies between 0 and 1. It is based on three key dimensions.

– Life expectancy at birth

– Mean years of schooling & Expected years of schooling.

– Per capita income.

Three components of HDI is –

  • Health: It is the first component of HDI measured by life expectancy. means how long someone lives a healthy life.
  • Education: The second component, education is measured by the expected year of schooling.
  • Standard of Living: It is measured by Gross National Income Per Capita (GNI-PC) at PPP (Purchasing Power Parity.

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