Published on September 1, 2020

All 12 Five-Year Plans Of India


India borrowed the concept of planning from former Russia or USSR.

The objectives of Five-Years Plans in India are as follows:

  • Economic growth
  • Social justice
  • Removal of poverty and unemployment
  • Removal of income inequality
  • Modernisation
  • Inclusive growth
  • Sustainable growth and so on

These objectives are taken from the Directive Principles of State Policy or DPSP of Indian Constitution.

After independence, India has three major problems that are the shortage of food grains, high inflation and refugee problems.

First Five-Year Plan (1951-1956)

  • Main Objective: Establish the Indian economy from war (with Pakistan) and partition.
  • Priority: Agriculture.
  • Prime Minister: Jawaharlal Nehru,
  • It was based on the Harrod-Domar Growth plan.
  • The first five-year plan was successful.

Second Five-Year Plan (1956 – 1961)

  • Main Objective: Rapid industrialisation of basic and heavy goods industries and machine making industries.
  • Top Priority: Heavy Industries such as coal, iron, steel, cement, fertilizer etc.
  • This plan followed the Mahalanobis model.

Third Five-Year Plan (1961 – 1966)

  • Main Objective: Self-reliance and self-generating economy.
  • Top Priority: Both agriculture and industry.

Plan Holidays (1966 – 1969)

  • Planning Commission of India stopped the five-year plans from 1966 to 1969 and the annual plan has begun.
  • Reasons: War with China(1962) and Pakistan (1965) and draught(1965 – 67) interrupted the development of India was interrupted. As a result –
    1. Agricultural growth becomes negative.
    2. Shortage of essential food grains.
    3. High inflation.
    4. Trade deficit.
    5. Saving decreased.
  • This is also called the annual plan period. No target was set during this time.
  • The major objective was to stabilize the Indian economy.

Forth Five-Year Plans (1969 – 1974)

  • Main objective:
    1. maintaining growth with stability
    2. Progressive achievement towards self-reliance.
  • Here the growth with stability means achieving targeted GDP growth along with price stability i.e. inflation control.
  • Top priority: Agriculture.
  • Prime minister: Indira Gandhi 
  • In 1969 during forth five-year plans Gadgil Formula associated with the transfer of assistance to the states by centre user various schemes were started.
  • In 1969, 14 major banks (private commercials were nationalized. This is called social control on the bank during this time.
  • “Garibi Hatao” (removal of poverty) was the theme and slogan was PM Indira Gandhi’s 1971’s election campaign.

Fifth Five-Year Plans (1974 – 1978)

  • Major objective:
    1. “Garibi hatao” (removal of poverty).
    2. Self-reliance.
    3. Control inflation.
  • Top priority: “Garibi hatao” or removal of poverty. The concept of “minimum needs” and directed anti-poverty programmes was the innovation of the fifth plan.
  • Janta party occupied the government and they rejected the fifth five-year plans and prepare the sixth plan.
  • Janta Party prepared a new plan called Janta Government’s sixth plan during 1978 and 1983. But Congress party came in power and terminated the plan in 1980.
  • The new plan was launched during 1980 and 1985 also known as Rolling plan.

Sixth Five-Year Plans (1980 – 1985)

  • Major objective and priority: removal of poverty and employment generation.
  • In 1980, 6 more private banks were nationalized by the government.
  • In Sixth Five-Year Plans Green Revolution was most successful.

Seventh Five-Year Plans (1985–1990)

  • Major objective:
    1. Increasing economic productivity.
    2. Increase production of food grains.
    3. Generating employment.
  • Annual plans(1990–1992): Two annual plans takes place during this time before formulating the eighth plan.
  • Prime Minister: Rajiv Gandhi

Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992–1997)

  • Major objective: Development of employment, education, and public health.
  • Top priority: Modernisation of industrial sectors.

Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002) 

  • Major objectives:
    1. Population control.
    2. Generate employment.
    3. Reduction of poverty.
    4. Increase the proper of food and water availability for the poor.
    5. Improvement of the primary health care system.
    6. Primary education to all children in the country.
    7. Empowering the socially disadvantaged classes like Scheduled castes, Scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
    8. Developing self-reliance in the agricultural sector.
    9. Improve the overall economy of the country.
  • Prime minister:  Atal Bihari Vajpayee 

Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002–2007)

  • Major objectives:
    1. Gain 8% GDP growth annually.
    2. Reduce the rate of poverty by 5% by the year 2007.
    3. Generate employment.
    4. Reduction in gender gaps in literacy.
    5. The 20-point program was initiated.

Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–2012)

  • Major objectives:
    1. It aimed to increase the enrolment in higher education of 18–23 years of age group by 2011–12.
    2. It focused on distant education, a convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions.
    3. Reduce the rate of poverty.
    4. Emphasis on social sector and delivery of service therein.
    5. Enhance empowerment through education and skill development.
    6. Reduction in the gender gap.
    7. Environmental sustainability.
  • Prime minister:  Manmohan Singh.

Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012–2017)

  • Major objectives:
    • To create 50 million new work opportunities in the non-farm sector.
    • To remove gender and social gap in school enrolment.
    • To enhance access to higher education.
    • To reduce malnutrition among children aged 0–3 years.
    • To provide electricity to all villages.
    • To ensure that 50% of the rural population have accesses to proper drinking water.
    • To increase green cover by 1 million hectares every year.
    • To provide access to banking services to 90% of households.

After the planning commission dissolve there is no new Five-Year Plans in India.

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