There are various theories regarding the origin of Aryans.
|Arctic Region||B.G. Tilak||on his book “The Arctic Home in the Vedas”.
|Central Asia||Maxmuller||termed Aryans as a race.|
|Europe||Sir William Jones||termed Aryans as language.|
|Tibet||Dayananda Saraswati||he is also known as Hindu Martin Luthar.|
|India||Swami Vivekananda||he was a patriot saint in India.|
Vedic literature is India's oldest scriptures in Hinduism. These were written in the Sanskrit language.
(1028 hymns, 10580 verses)
|1. compiled around 1500- 1000 BC.
2. it is divided into 10 columns called Mandals.
3. Mandal III contains the Gayatri Mantra (for Goddess Savitri).
4. Mandal X is only dedicated to Goddess Soma (Lord of Plants)
5. similar to the oldest Iranian text Avesta.
6. experts in Rigveda were called Hotra or Hotri.
|1. known to be the beginning of Indian music.
2. consists of 1810 hymns.
3. experts in Samaveda were called Udgatri.
|Yajurveda||1. consists of two parts, viz. Krishna Yajurveda and Shukla Yajurveda.
2. experts in Samaveda were called Adhvaryu.
3. It consists of sacrificial formulae.
|Atharvaveda||1. contain magical hymns to get relief from diseases.
2. Indian medical science Ayurveda originated from it.
3. It consists of spells and charms.
|The Brahmanas||1. Tandya Brahmana – oldest Brahmanas.
2. Shatapatha Brahmanas – most voluminous Brahmanas.
3. It consists of meninges ofvedic hymns and their applications etc.
|The Aranyakas||Aranyakas are the bridge among Vedas , Brahmanas and Upanishads. It is about forest.|
|The Upanishads||1. last part of Vedic literature also know as Vedanta.
2. the mening of Upanishads is ‘ to sit near the feel of’.
3. the word satyameva jayate in the National Emblem is taken from Mundaka Upanishad.
3. There is a total of 108 Upanishad.
4. It is about metaphysics and philosophy.
|Vedangas/ Sutra literature||1. compiled after 600 BC.
2. Six Vedangas are
– Shiksha (Phonetics or science of pronunciation),
– Kalpa (Ritual or Ceremony),
– Vyakarana (Grammar),
– Nirukta (Etymology),
– Chhanda (Metrics, rules of poetic composition),
– Jyotisha (Astronomy).
|1. also known as Adi Kavya.
2. writted by Valmiki.
|1. longest epic of the world.
2. written by Ved Vyasa.
|Purana||Matsya Purana is the oldest Puranic text. There is a total of 18 Puranas.|
The early Rigvedic people lived in Sapta Sindhu or land of seven rivers region of Punjab. The name of the seven rivers are Vitasta(Jheum), Asikani ( Chenab), Vipas (Beas), Parushni (Ravi),Sutuadri (Sutlej), Saraswati (Sarsuti).
The most important source of the later Vedic period is Satapath Brahmana. Here the detailed account of Aryan migration was covered. Archaeological evidence of this period was found in Hastinapur(Delhi) and Ataranji khera.
The later Vedic Period people virtually occupied the whole North India , from river Saraswati to Ganges in Uttar Pradesh.